On typical assembly process of automobile

2022-09-21
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In recent years, with the development of automobile industry, as a comprehensive automobile factory design unit, our institute has undertaken a large number of automobile factory design tasks. This paper combines the experience accumulated by the assembly technology major of our institute in these years, summarizes and discusses the main contents of automobile assembly technology

1 automobile assembly process

with the development of automobile industry and parts industry, the level of automobile assembly technology has also been greatly improved. Domestic attention has been paid to the assembly and factory test that directly affect the quality and service life of automobile products and the final link of automobile product production, which has promoted the improvement of automobile product assembly, test process and equipment technology

automobile assembly line generally refers to an organic whole composed of conveying equipment (aerial suspension conveying equipment and ground conveying equipment) and special equipment (such as lifting, overturning, filling equipment, power color temperature manipulator, detection, bolt nut fastening equipment, etc.) although the low-speed dynamic balance has been verified and well balanced

in recent years, our institute has successively undertaken the design or general contracting of car projects such as brilliance M1, Changan Ford, Hainan Mazda, Shanghai GM Dongyue automobile, SAIC GM Wuling Automobile, Shanghai GM Beisheng, JAC automobile, etc; Undertook the design and general contracting of Beiqi Foton, Shaanxi heavy truck and other truck projects; Contracted overseas general contracting projects such as GM India project and Sudan automobile factory; These projects have promoted the three-dimensional exploration of the assembly process design specialty of our institute in many aspects, including machine transportation system, material transportation system, quality control system, etc

advanced assembly technology requires advanced process equipment. The design and manufacturing level of process equipment is very important to ensure efficient production and high quality of products, and it is also a symbol of the level of automotive assembly technology

automobile assembly process equipment is mainly divided into six categories: conveying equipment, filling equipment, bolt fastening equipment and special assembly equipment, testing equipment and quality control equipment

according to the different loading methods of the body, the assembly line type is also different

2 car (load-carrying body) process equipment

conveying equipment: typical car assembly lines include three main lines of interior trim, chassis and final assembly, as well as some offline module sub assembly lines, such as door, instrument panel, powertrain assembly, etc

in addition, it is necessary to set up a vehicle body storage and conveying line between painting and general assembly. The types used include skid, stacking chain, friction chain, etc. the main functions are as follows: cushioning in painting/general assembly room; Multi variety selection; Sort

at present, the typical model selection of car assembly line is that the interior line adopts the ground sliding plate conveying system, the chassis line adopts the aerial suspension accumulation chain/ems/tts/reverse sliding plate, etc., and the final assembly line adopts the wide plate chain or double narrow plate chain. The door sub assembly line mostly adopts the aerial suspension accumulation chain/ems, etc. The assembly line of powertrain module adopts ground drag chain/electric rail car/agv, etc

filling equipment: antifreeze, brake fluid, power steering fluid, refrigerant, etc. in car assembly, filling machines with vacuum pumping, automatic leak detection, automatic quantitative filling and other functions are widely used, and ordinary quantitative filling machines are used for others, such as fuel, detergent, engine oil, etc

bolt fastening equipment and special assembly equipment: the bolts of key components are generally electric tightening machines, which can effectively control the tightening torque and monitor the tightening process. Special equipment includes a large number of power assisted manipulators and robots, which not only reduce the labor intensity of workers, but also ensure the assembly quality. The scope of application includes door disassembly, front and rear suspension installation, sunroof installation, instrument panel installation, seat installation, tire installation, windshield automatic gluing, etc

testing equipment: according to national specifications, the factory testing line is generally composed of side slip test bench, steering test bench, headlamp detector, brake test bench, speedometer test bench, exhaust gas analyzer, chassis inspection and other equipment. For vehicles with independent suspension, wheel aligners shall also be equipped. After the delivery test, the vehicle enters the rain test to test the sealing performance of the vehicle. Generally, a repair area is set beside the inspection line to repair the vehicles that fail to pass the inspection of a certain item and return to the inspection line for retest until they are qualified

quality control equipment: the more common one should be the andon system, which is an audio-visual multimedia multiple automatic control system. It is a set of information management and control system specially designed for automobile production and assembly lines, and has become an indispensable part of the complete automobile production line. The system can collect information about equipment, production and management on the production line. After processing these information, the andon system controls the indicator light and audible alarm system distributed throughout the workshop. The core part of the system is the andon field control cabinet. The andon system PLC communicates with the central control system of the assembly workshop through the network. The greatest advantage of andon system is that it can provide a new and more effective way for operators to solve problems encountered in production. In case of any problem, the operator can pull the rope or press the button at the workstation to trigger the corresponding sound and light the corresponding indicator light, prompting the supervisor to immediately find out the place and cause of the fault. It greatly reduces downtime and improves production efficiency at the same time. Another major component of the andon system is the information display. The display screen is distributed above the main channel or close to the main processing equipment. Each display panel can provide information about a single production line, including production status, raw material status, quality status and equipment status. The display can also display real-time data, such as target output, actual output, downtime and production efficiency. According to the information provided on the display, the operator can work more effectively. In addition, different music alarms can enable operators and supervisors to clearly understand what problems have occurred in their jurisdiction. The team leader or team leader can also identify and eliminate bottlenecks in the production process according to the information displayed on the display

3 non load bearing body assembly process equipment

due to the difference of body load-bearing type, the interior decoration and chassis assembly of this kind of vehicle are carried out separately. The chassis assembly and final assembly are connected in series. The assembly sequence is to complete the pre assembly of the frame, assemble the front and rear axles and transmission shafts, complete the frame turnover by the turnover machine, and then install the engine gearbox assembly, the cab trim assembly, the wheels, oil and water filling, etc

as with cars, body storage and conveying lines need to be set between painting and assembly. The types used include skids, stacking chains, friction chains, etc. the main functions are as follows: cushioning between painting/assembly; Multi variety selection; Sort

typical assembly line applications of heavy trucks are as follows:

wide plate chain or sliding plate conveyor is used for interior line; It has good accessibility

the combined type of single chain front trolley + double plate chain is mostly adopted; Some foreign advanced automobile factories also adopt a plastic processing industry to solemnly promise the GV car to the society as the final assembly line. The advantage is that, like the ordinary assembly line, it can produce according to the process beat (process speed) - normal function; The pause of partial failure or process production failure does not affect the overall continuous production - partial pause; Bottleneck processes such as the engine gearbox assembly station and the cab chassis assembly station AGV can switch out of the mainstream. Xia Feng, director of the national copper lead zinc quality inspection center, said that local assembly switches can be realized to meet the production pace of the main line, and offline maintenance switches can be set at the same time; The disadvantage lies in the high cost

bolt fastening equipment and special assembly equipment: the bolts of key components are generally electric tightening machines, which can effectively control the tightening torque and monitor the tightening process. Special equipment includes a large number of power assisted manipulators and robots, which not only reduce the labor intensity of workers, but also ensure the assembly quality. Manipulator is mainly used in door disassembly, seat installation, tire installation, etc; Robots are mainly used for automatic gluing of windshield glass

others, such as filling equipment, testing equipment, quality control equipment, etc., are roughly the same as the car process, which will not be repeated here

because the output of truck factories is generally much smaller than that of car factories, and the degree of automation is much lower than that of car factories due to the difference of product structure

4 Conclusion:

at present, the level of automobile assembly technology in our hospital has been affirmed by the industry, won a good reputation and accumulated rich experience. In the future, we still need to continue to improve, combined with the characteristics of the production organization system, based on the machine transportation system, combined with the needs of material transportation and quality control system, combined with advanced production management concepts, to provide our customers with the most reasonable and forward-looking assembly process solutions

References:

[1] "Automotive Engineering Manual · manufacturing", people's Communications Press, May 2001 (end)

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